The Development of Endpapers
Linda Blaser, Conservator, The Folger Shakespeare Library, © 1976
(A more extensive version was published in the GBW Journal Vol. XXXII, No. 1,
The following endpapers are examples of several endpapers currently in use for
different purposes. These endpapers were compiled from a class on endpaper construction
taught by Donald Etherington and Christopher Clarkson in September 1973.
This is a simple endpaper with a strong linen joint and a Japanese paper hook
guard. The Japanese paper hook guard closes up the gap between the endpaper
and the first section by booking around the first section.
This is a variation of example 1 with the linen tipped to the white folio and
the Japanese paper hook guard tipped over the linen, hooking around the'first
section where it is tipped again. The tipping over the linen hides the linen
strip, and the tipping to the first section aids in sewing by keeping the hooked
guard from slipping off the section while in the process of sewing.
This is another variation of example 1. A double folio of white paper is used
instead of one folio. This endpaper gives the binder more flyleaves.
This endpaper consists of hooked leaves. It is very important to step the hooked
guards so that they will not cuase a hard ridge which would break the section
This endpaper is useful on large books when there is not paper large enough
available to form folios the right size for the text block.
In this endpaper the marble folio and the white folio are made (pasted) together
to form a still flyleaf. The paste is applied to the white flyleaf so that upon
drying the stiff made flyleaf pulls towards the textblock instead of away from
This is a variation of example 5. The only difference is that the waste sheet
is tipped to the outside of the linen instead of the marble sheet. This eliminates
the possibility of damage to the marble paper when removing the waste sheet.
The placement of the waste sheet can help in the binding operation, too. If
the waste sheet is tipped in from the folio at the point where the backing shoulder
is to go, it forms a visual line to put the backing boards up to.
This is another variation of a made endpaper, sometimes referred to as a flexie
end. Instead of the marble and white leaves being stuck all over to each other,
they are simply tipped together at the spine edge. The marble folio is left
about a 1/4 of an inch longer at the foredge. This 1/4 of an inch of the marble
folio is folded towards the white folio. The fold is then stuck down to the
white folio. This endpaper has a very flexible first flyleaf instead of the
stiff one created by the made endpaper.
This is a cloth jointed stiff leaved endpaper often used in ledger work. The
adhesive used on this endpaper is a polyvinyl acetate glue. This is a very strong
This is a variation of the cloth jointed endpaper. Instead of a stiff flyleaf
this endpaper has a flexible flyleaf.
This is a leather jointed endpaper. The areas of the hair side of the leather
which are glued are sanded for good adhesion.
The leather joint goes over the joint of the book and onto the book board.
Another leaf of marble paper is glued onto the book board.,
This is a flexible zigzag endpaper with a leather joint. A marble cover lining
is added the same way as in example 10