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Welcome to the 2011 Bind-O-Rama
The Bonefolder's annual online exhibition.
Artistically Reversible: Where Conservation and Art Meet
We are pleased to present Artistically Reversible: Where Conservation and Art Meet, the 2011 Bonefolder Bind-O-Rama. This online exhibited was inspired by the tenets of the Tomorrow’s Past (TP) movement that seeks to provide antiquarian books with new, conservationally sound yet innovative bindings. The UK-based movement has its roots 1999 with Sün Evrard and was in part inspired by the late Edgar Mansfield who wrote that “surely it is better to create tomorrow’s past than to repeat today’s.” As British binder Jen Lindsay wrote in 2007, “Why go on making books based on Then – copying outdated methods and conventions, instead of making books based on Now – applying current knowledge and practice with a modern sensibility.”
TP member Kathy Abbott, a binder and conservator acknowledges that the work of TP has created quite a bit of controversy: some book conservators think we are imposing our will onto the books and think we should be more invisible; book restorers think that we should be making bindings which imitate the period of which the book was printed and book artists seem to like our structures but see us as a bit ‘staid’. This Bind-O-Rama created similar controversy in the US perhaps due to a misunderstanding of both the outcomes and on a deeper level of conservation ethics which as expressed consider every book to be rebound or treated as a cultural heritage artifact. This latter conflict was discussed at length in Barbara Appelbaum’s paper that was presented at the 2011 American Institute of Conservation meeting and entitled Conservation in the 21th Century; Will a 20th Century Code of Ethics Suffice? <http://barbaraappelbaumbooks.com/wp-content/uploads/paper_aic_conservation.pdf>.
While many books are most certainly cultural heritage artifacts either as objects themselves or as part of the collection that holds them, many, the majority perhaps are use objects that have seen a great deal of handling and exhibit their age and provenance through the wear that is exhibited by their deterioration of materials and structure. It is these objects that TP seeks to give new life and a renewed significance whether for collectors or antiquarians. Conservation principles of doing no harm, reversibility (or as expressed by James Reid-Cunningham, conservator at the Boston Athenaeum retreatability) expressed by the use of proven materials with long-term stability, sound structure, and a skillful and respectful expression of craft married to innovation in structure and design. It is the latter which seems to touch the most sensitive nerve with concerns about “appropriateness.” Conservator Chela Metzger writes, “most conservation treatment discusses “appropriateness” or even used the word sympathy when describing a treatment goal. The original old part must meet and mingle with a “non original” new part. The meeting and the mingling must work well at every level. But this appropriateness and sympathy are hard to sum up. Appropriate to the text subject matter? Appropriate for the text paper qualities? Appropriate to the text time period? Appropriate for the owner of the text at the time of the binding?”
As Abbott says, “why can’t we make really, sound, conservation bindings, with a bit of structural ingenuity and a sensitive aesthetic too?” This theme was also echoed in a side-discussion at the Guild of Book Workers 2011 Standards of Excellence Seminar. That discussion featured several conservators and binders working in the US, both with cultural heritage collections and as binders in general.
While the response to this Bind-O-Rama was lower than we hoped, we were very pleased to see conservators and binders take up the challenge. In reviewing the entries we asked “what treatments would disqualify entries from this exhibit? Ones that immediately strike one as hurtful to the text. Ones that do not use stable materials? Ones that require damaging the text to remove it from the new binding. Fortunately we found no evidence that disqualified entries, however we do encourage those interested to see that it is not about traditional “design bindings” or “restoration” but sympathetically innovative conservationally sound bindings.
We hope that binders and conservators will adhere to the highest standards of conservation materials and structure while keeping an open mind and willingness to consider the aesthetic and structural options for rebinding. A large part of that will be an ongoing civil dialog in which conservators continue to stress and share their best practices and we all pragmatically consider the options for rebinding a given book in full consideration of its value and historic significance whatever that may (or may not) be. Writes Abbott, “I do hope that in the future, books bound in this way will be as accepted as every other binding style,” and “I think it could become the most exciting and challenging concept that has come out of the world of bookbinding for a long time.”
Comments by Kathy Abbott of Tomorrow's Past and The Bonefolder editorial staff.
Eric Alstrom, Okemos, MI, USA
E.J. Goodspeed, History of the Great Fires of Chicago and the West (New York, 1871).
Condition Description: Book bound in leather case-style binding in poor condition. Joints broken, front board detached; spine missing. Cover blind stamped. Headbands were machine made in poor condition. Sewn on recessed cords; sewing sound. Edges marbled. Paper acidic. Endsheets torn at joint.
Treatment Report: Mended tears in fold out map. Hinged in map and titlepage. Paste washed spine. Front board attachment strengthened with cloth hinge inserted under endpapers. Reinforced and reattached original headbands. Handmade paper hollow added. Spine rebacked with Japanese paper. Leather consolidated with Klucel G. Corners and edges reinforced with paste and Japanese paper. Added new gold stamped skiver label. Cover and spine waxed.
Treatment Philosophy: Being both a design binder/book artist and conservator, I don’t have much chance to combine these two areas (besides skill sets). This approach lets me use my creative side while still adhering to the principals of the conservation code of ethics. While it will not be for most books I treat, it is another approach to use when something more than a strict historic reproduction is called for.
More images available at <https://picasaweb.google.com/webalstrom/BindORama2011TomorrowSPast>.
Eric Alstrom has been in the binding and conservation field for over 20 years. He apprenticed under James Craven at the Bentley Historical Library and then worked at the Bessenberg Bindery, both in Ann Arbor, MI. He has headed the conservation programs at Ohio University and Dartmouth College. Currently he is head of conservation at Michigan State University. Eric teaches conservation and the book arts around the country and also for the Book Arts Program at Michigan State University. He is a member of the Guild of Book Workers and a Professional Associate in the American Institute for Conservation. Currently Eric is planning yet another conservation lab, the fourth of his career.
Anna Embree, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
Joost van den Vondel, Dichterlijke Werken van Joost van den Vondel (Amsterdam 1821).
Condition Description: Cover boards and spine missing; sections no longer bound (remains of sewing threads in some of the sections but sewing not intact); text block untrimmed.
Treatment Report: Rather than box the loose sections, I chose to rebind the book. Through examination of other books from the same set, I was able to determine that the book had originally been bound in a case structure with thin boards, and covered in half-paper with paper sides. I chose to rebind the book using a format and materials that would be modern in appearance but but related to the original binding.
Built-in groove case binding. Sections mended and guarded minimally with Japanese paper and wheat starch paste; text block resewn using original sewing holes and link stitch sewing; spine lined with 2 layers of Japanese paper (applied with wheat starch paste) and 1 layer of handmade paper (applied with pva/methyl cellulose mix); new unbleached abaca hand-made paper endsheets (to match the original); case constructed using 4-ply museum board and quarter covered with hand-made flax paper and paste paper sides (acrylics and wheat paste on Bugra paper). 155 x 95 x 25mm. Bound in 2011.
Treatment Philosophy: I create sound bindings that function well and are designed with the materials and contents of the texts in mind. My aim for this project was to following established good conservation practices, and provide the item with a new binding that is both aesthetically pleasing and also sympathetic to the original structure of the book.
Anna Embree is an Assistant Professor for the MFA in the Book Arts Program in the School of Library and Information Studies at The University of Alabama. She holds an MS in Textiles and Clothing from Iowa State University, a Graduate Certificate in Book Arts and Technologies from the University of Iowa Center for the Book, and a BA in Art from the University of Iowa. In addition to her formal degrees, Anna completed an apprenticeship in Rare Book Conservation at the University of Iowa Libraries. She teaches courses and workshops in bookbinding, box making, and special topics in book preservation and book history.
Karen Hanmer, Glenview, IL, USA
Walter Crane, Of The Decorative Illustration of Books Old and New (London, 1896, First edition).
Condition Description: Of original cloth case, only the heavily water-damaged rear board and a fragment of front board bearing the title remain. Staining only visible on the gilt head and the final few signatures, which contain plates on coated paper. Thread weak and sewing broken in places.
Treatment Report: Modified Simplified binding. Book disbound and resewn on ramieband. Discolored tissues adjacent to plates discarded. Single page with detached corner repaired. Interior and exterior folios of each signature guarded to protect folds when resewing. New endpapers of handmade paper sympathetic with the text block. To treat the text block gently and reversibly, it was pasted up (no PVA) and rounded but not backed, “superior archival millboard” boards beveled at inside spine edge to match natural round. Spine linings of Japanese tissue, linen, then alum-tawed calf sanded smooth to even spine. Boards covered in decorative paper acquired at a Guild of Book Workers auction marked “Italian old.” Handsewn three color silk headbands, spine piece covered in Harmatan goatskin. New label is frontispiece from text, scanned and inkjet-printed onto calf vellum. Gold tooling on spine echoes pattern of decorative paper.
Treatment Philosophy: As a non conservator, my challenge with Artistically Reversible was to let the needs of the book and a philosophy of minimal intervention dictate the treatment, rather than my usual practice of making the book subordinate to my conceptual desires. Several candidates were dismissed because their condition did not merit resewing or the discard of their detached, but sound, boards. I have a new appreciation for those distressed but still handsome 18th century books, now as examples of period design and structure, rather than as raw materials for an art project.
More images available at <http://www.karenhanmer.com/gallery/piece.php?gallery=bindings&p=Walter_Crane>.
Karen Hanmer’s artists’ books, bindings and installations intertwine cultural and personal memory. The work is often playful in structure or content, and may include social commentary. She exhibits widely, and her work has won numerous awards, including the 2009 DeGolyer Jury Prize for Binding. Her work is included in collections ranging from Tate Britain and the Library of Congress to Yale University and Graceland. She curated the Guild of Book Workers Marking Time exhibition, and The Book of Origins: A Survey of American Fine Binding. She serves on the editorial board of The Bonefolder, and as a reviewer for the Guild of Book Workers Journal. Ms. Hanmer is well aware that several workshops with Don Etherington and numerous consultations with Eric Alstrom and Peter Verheyen do not make her a conservator. She has studied binding with Priscilla Spitler, Scott Kellar and Monique Lallier, and holds a degree in Economics from Northwestern University. She offers workshops and private instruction focusing on a solid foundation in basic binding skills. Online catalog at <http://www.karenhanmer.com>.
Roberta Lavadour, Pendleton, OR, USA
James R. Boyd, A.M., Elements of English Composition (New York, 1868).
Condition Description: Bound in quarter leather with embossed cloth boards; old repairs of thick leather spine cover and flour sack spine lining failing, covers and spine detached, text block sound with faded marbled edges.
Treatment Report: Bound in a modified German Case binding, original sewing retained; spine lined with Japanese paper and mull; new endpapers of Canson Ingres; dyed vellum (Jesse Meyer) spine, decorative paper.
Treatment Philosophy: I rarely do conservation work, and then only for my own use or continuing education. I have great respect for conservators and try to honor the best practices of the trade.
Roberta Lavadour maintains a private studio practice publishing her own artist’s books and bindings. Her work is published under the Mission Creek Press imprint. Her conservation education includes a mix of workshop study with conservators like Ann Frellsen and John Townsend, and vigorous independent investigation.
Chela Metzger, Kennett Square, PA, USA
Comenius, Obus Sensualium Pictus (n.d., ca. 1666 and 1780).
Condition Description: No binding present. 100 pages missing in the front, and an unknown number missing in the back. Sewn 2-on on utilizing three double twisted cord supports, with sewing intact. No evidence remains of endbands. Sprinked edges. Tears and missing pages throughout the handmade paper textblock. Manuscript and hand-coloring throughout in watercolor, crayon and graphite. Spine of text has gone completely concave with use but is intact enough for normal reading.
Treatment Report: Though the book has no binding, I use it for teaching , and I wanted a binding to protect the pages and provide support for the spine when I passed it around the classroom. While it has losses and the spine is misshapen from use, I prefer to keep the textblock exactly as is as long as possible as evidence of use. A simple one piece cover of goatskin parchment was molded around the asymmetrical textblock, using closely spaced parallel creases on the spine to bring the parchment into a curve to match the text’s concave spine shape. The cover has no turn-ins. The cover was attached in three places to the text using a haphazard “archival longstitch” sewing. (Colophon “best blake” 18/5 linen thread ) The cover was then decorated with scribbled and scratched words using graphite and Prismacolor raw umber pencil. Most of the scribbled words are vocabulary words related to school, or books, and are taken directly from the text. The cover was wiped with a cotton cloth and cosmetic sponges until no media came off, to be sure media did not transfer from the cover to a reader’s hands.
Treatment Philosophy: I rarely rebind special collections books anymore. When I do, I often create a binding meant to sympathize with the date of the textblock. I deeply respect what a well done “period” binding requires, and how those new bindings interact with the old text. But, since I was the curator for this book I chose a rather rustic “period” binding curators might not agree to, with decorations that suite my style or lack thereof . I may not always love my decoration, but removing the non-adhesive cover will take two minutes and leave the textblock exactly as I received it.
Chela Metzger has worked as a conservator since 1994 when she completed her internship at Library of Congress. She has worked at the Huntington Library, University of Texas, University of Michigan and the Winterthur Museum. She got her library degree in 1990, and her certificate in hand-bookbinding from the North Bennet Street School in 1993.
Klaus von Mirbach, Mönchengladbach, Germany
Das goldene Tor, Ein Lesebuch für die 3. und 4. Schulklasse (Düsseldorf, 1930).
Condition Description: The binding is totally broken down, most folios split, the covers very worn.
Treatment Report: All the remains of the binding have been removed, the paper cleaned dry. The whole book was divided into sections. I put the pages of each section in a folio of 300 grams of strong acid-free paper. On these folios, I wrote the chapter headings. I arranged newly the index of contents, so that it could be printed out on one folio. 190 pages of the book in 7 folios. And then I made a box, covered with white acid free paper. On the box the title of the book: Das goldene Tor.
Treatment Philosophy: It was very astonishing and a great pleasure for me, that a book, that some loose sheet of paper, impossible to repair to a familiar, commonly accepted form, with a simple but imaginative treatment, could become such a poetic outlook, that it is a pleasure to sit in an armchair, you can find any story and you can read once again the book.
More images available at <http://www.klausvonmirbach.blogspot.com>.
I grew up in a print office and bindery, studied graphic design at the Folkwang Schule, Essen-Werden, Germany, worked in a publishing house, currently I work as a self-employed artist, bookbinder and restaurator.
Suzy Morgan, Chicago, IL, USA
Johann Habermann, Christliche Gebete (1713).
Condition Description: Quarter-style with brown paper and black leather over paperboard boards; covering damaged, spine missing; textblock torn at outer edges and damaged along folds by repeated sewing repairs.
Treatment Report: Adapted Medieval-style longstitch through stiff spine piece. Repair sewing removed, textblock washed in alkaline bath and resized with Methyl cellulose; folios guarded or lined overall as needed, with Tengujo tissue applied with wheat starch paste. Textblock sewn with linen thread through a stiff spine piece constructed of Vivek plastic mounted to oversized Mylar with 3M mounting adhesive, with the Mylar facing out; Mylar flanges cut to size, then sanded and lined with Kozo tissue applied with PVA. Boards consolidated with toned Kozo tissue and paste; corners reinforced with paste and 10pt board; paste-downs lifted along spine edge; exposed board under lifted paste-down lined with tissue applied with paste. Mylar flanges inserted under lifted paste-down and adhered with paste.
Treatment Philosophy: This treatment allowed me to explore the meanings of reversibility, conservation and book arts, and reinforced my understanding that they are not exclusive, binary definitions but rather are part of a semantic spectrum. This treatment both challenges and upholds the traditions of my training, as I have combined modern materials with a very old structure, using the same conservation methods and principles employed for more conventional treatments.
More images available at <http://www.flickr.com/photos/suzypictures/sets/72157627145298417>.
Suzy Morgan is a 2009 graduate of the School of Information at the University of Texas at Austin, where she received a certificate in advanced studies in conservation from the Kilgarlin Center for the Preservation of the Historic Record. She has had internships at Northwestern University, Syracuse University, the Cincinnati Art Museum and the Ringling Museum of Art. She is currently self-employed as a book conservator and preservation consultant.
Nancy Nitzberg, Elkins Park, PA, USA
Juan Perez Lopez, Joao Duns Escoto (Lisboa, 1744).
Condition Description: Bound in full leather, property-stamped and deteriorated boards detached, portion of spine missing, textblock sound, losses to lower corners of first few leaves.
Treatment Report: The boards and spine fragments were removed and saved. The spine of the textblock was lined with long fiber tissue. The paper losses to the lower corners of the first few leaves were filled with long-fiber tissue. New alkaline handmade endpapers were sewn on with linen thread. Alum tawed goat strips were anchor-sewed through existing sewing holes. Covering material was made of two medium weight handmade papers adhered together with wheat starch paste. The textblock was laced into the cover with the alum-tawed supports. The lacing is at an angle to prevent the cover from shifting vertically.
Treatment Philosophy: Preparing this binding is a reminder to me of what great options paper case and laced-on paper covers are for collections that have limited funds. Such bindings are chemically stable, aesthetically sympathetic and minimally labor intensive for early printed materials. The flexible paper binding can be stored in a four-flap folder with the wrapped original boards if they’re to be kept. For this 1744 Portuguese imprint, this treatment is appropriate as it is reminiscent of many limp vellum bindings produced on the Iberian peninsula through the centuries, often using few sewing supports or endband cores for the lacing in.
My first exposure to bookbinding was in 1982, at the Harvard College Library’s Conservation Unit where I received on-the-job training in book repair. Four years later, I then attended Columbia University, receiving an M.S. in Library Service and a Certificate in Library and Archives Conservation that also included a full year as an intern at the Library of Congress Rare Books Conservation Section. After working as a professional book conservator in major research libraries and a regional conservation center, I established my own business, Book-Care, providing conservation and custom bookbinding services to institutions, the book trade, and to individuals. My independent research pursuits have included examining Yemenite, Judeo-Persian, and Jewish-Chinese historic bookbinding (structures, materials and aspects of text), early Philadelphia bookbindings, and other styles of historic bookbinding in which local materials were utilized and utilitarian needs of the populations were considered. I also enjoy creating interpretive bindings.
Jana Pullman, Minneapolis, MN USA
Friendship in Death in Twenty Letters from the Dead to the Living, translated from the Moral Essays of the Meffieurs du Port Royal (London, 1729).
Condition Description: Binding: Dark grey paper cover and a lightweight paper glued on the spine. Sewn with a simple link stitch that had broken in several places. The spine had been coated with hide glue. The cover papers were machine made papers with a woven finished, not original to the book and the pages show signs of being sewn previously through the sides of the folded sections. Text block: Pages are in good condition with the exception of the first and last pages, which are discolored. These two pages also felt soft and weak when compared to the rest of the book.
Treatment Report: The book was disbound. The first and last pages were washed and lightly sized with methylcellulose. After seeing the improvement to the color and feel of these pages the remaining pages were also washed but after being dried they did not seem to need resizing. Small tears were mended with Japanese paper and each section was guarded with a thin Japanese tissue and paste. A two-folio section of Iowa B9 handmade paper was added to the front and back of the book. The book was sewn on tawed double leather thongs and simple endbands on tawed thongs. Spine was line with Japanese tissue and paste between the thongs. The new cover is a three piece laced on binding made with flax handmade paper. The spine piece is walnut dyed and the cover pieces are decorated with paste and acrylic paint. A label made from the walnut flax paper was added to the front cover.
Treatment Philosophy: With my work on books I have always looked back to the old methods and designs of antiquarian books and looked forward to see the new material and methods my colleagues use in their design bindings. These two worlds have stay separate most of the time. With this project I was able to make an additional bridge between the two.
More images available at <http://aboutthebinding.blogspot.com/2011/10/friendship-in-death.html>.
Student of Jim Dast, University of Wisconsin-Madison and Bill Anthony, University of Iowa. MFA in printmaking with an emphasis in book arts and papermaking. Managed the repair unit for the circulating collection at the Marriot library at the University of Utah. Worked for libraries and institutions in book and paper conservation and now I am in private practice.
Sol Rébora, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Lorenzo De’ Medici, Poesie (Venezia , Aldo, 1554).
Condition Description: Original binding: (19th Century) half leather with marble paper boards, part of the spine missing, leather completely dry, broken hinges; edges colored dark turquoise.
Treatment Report: Simplified binding. Original sewing retained; old spine lining cleaned up, new spine lining with acid free Japanese paper, new embroidered endband, built outside the book block. Japanese hand-colored endpapers (divided in three parts). Spine: parchment, decorated with lens tissue paper strips; soft bands made up with thread placed below the parchment. Boards: Light and dark turquoise flesh side leather inlays covered with lens tissue paper and decorated with crossed lens tissue paper strips.
Treatment Philosophy: When working with antiquarian books I always try to use the most appropriate structure for each work. In this case, using a simple binding construction was the less intrusive approach, making it is easy to take apart the binding without damaging the text block. The cover is attached with a hollow back to the text block, and the endpapers are attached with Japanese hinges. I chose parchment for the spine because it is a traditional element in XVI Century Venetian bindings. The inspiration of the cover design comes from the colored edges and the marble paper from the previous binding. All materials used in the binding are acid free.
Sol Rebora’s education in Fine Bookbinding began in Buenos Aires in 1996 . In 1999 Sol began specializing in Bookbinding and conservation in Toronto at the Canadian Bookbinders and Book Artists Guild, with Betsy Palmer Eldrige and with Deborah Evetts in N.Y.C. In 2000 Sol began specializing in Design Bookbinding by taking classes with Monique Lallier in North Carolina , Foundation Centro del Bel Libro, in Ascona, with Edwin Heim, Jean-Luc Honegger and Pascal Theron for finishing in Paris. She has participated on many international exhibitions and has been awarded several prizes such as 1st Prize in the “Case Binding” category; “Institute of Bookbinders and Allied Trades Award for Craftsmanship” and “Award for Forwarding”. Since 1999 Sol has worked in her private studio as a Designer Bookbinder in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
James Reid-Cunningham, Cambridge, MA, USA
Insect Architecture (London, 1830).
Condition Description: Bound in a half leather binding in atrocious condition. The leather is very degraded, with the hair layer missing over almost the entire surface. The corners are severely bumped, with losses. The sewing appears intact.
Treatment Report: The leather on the spine was removed using a poultice of wheat starch paste, one flyleaf was hinged back onto the textblock and the spine was lined with kozo tissue using wheat starch paste. A new case was fabricated with fore edge yapps using Iowa flax paper PC4. The case was decorated with a Pigma Micron black pen using the pattern of the cells of a wasp’s nest. The case was sewn on using a long stitch and 35/3 linen thread colored with acrylics. The extant boards were retained and re-housed with the new binding.
Treatment Philosophy: The discovery after disbinding of a second set of sewing holes demonstrated that the extant binding is not the original binding, which gives a conservator greater latitude in altering the volume during treatment. The rebinding is loosely based on vellum binding at Athenaeum: the detached textblock was reattached by sewing through the case into the first and last sections. Insect Architecture was repaired in the least intrusive manner, ensuring the volume can be disbound in the future. Minor ink decoration was added to the paper case as a visual accent, but the binding could have been left undecorated.
More images available at <http://www.reid-cunningham.com/Design%20Bindings/insectarchitectu.html>.
James Reid-Cunningham studied bookbinding with Mark Esser at the North Bennet Street School in Boston, and was the President of the Guild of Book Workers from 2006 to 2010. Following twelve years as the conservator of the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, in 2003 he was named chief conservator of the Boston Athenaeum. He is currently the associate director for digital programs and preservation at the Boston Athenaeum. In 2006, he received the Distinguished Alumni Award from the North Bennet Street School. He is the adjunct lecturer in book conservation in the graduate art conservation department at Buffalo State College (SUNY). His design bindings and book art can be seen at <http://www.reid-cunningham.com>.
Constance Wozny, Eastwood, KY, USA
A.J.B. Parent Duchatelet, Prostitution in Paris (New York 1852).
Condition Description: No cover boards or spine, text which was loose but in good condition.
Treatment Report: All pages washed, resewn on tapes. Used simplified binding of yellow ostrich on spine with leather label, and marbel paper designed by Eineen Miurs. Endsheets were a blue grid pattern designed by Mokuba Ribbon. Since this was a first edition, my customer requested something fun and not a tradtional look.
Treatment Philosophy: My structures take into consideration paper conservation along with the request of my client.
Constance received a BBA degree in Marketing and worked for a major corporation for 17 years. She is currently self-employed as a bookbinder. She continues her education at the American Academy of Bookbinding and with Tini Miura. The organizations she exhibits with are the Guild of Book Workers, Hand Bookbinders of California, One Book Many Interpretations (Chicago Library) and the Cincinnati Book Artists. Books collected at The Special Collections of the Cincinnati Main Library and the Ann Arbor, Michigan Library.
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